Mathematical Machines and Systems. 2020 #1



UDC 681.3

Yashchenko V.O. Intelligent robotic systems to ensure life safety in emergency situations of peace and war. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 3 – 29.

The paper presents an overview of measures to ensure the safety of the population in emergency situations of a peaceful nature, military dangers and survival in combat conditions. It is clear that in the course of war and military conflicts it is rather difficult to consider the safety of soldiers and officers, since it is the duty of soldiers and officers to protect their territory from the enemy at all costs. However, at present, in the current conditions of conducting military operations, in order to reduce the losses of soldiers and officers, robots and robotic mobile systems are being created and concepts for their use are being considered. The armies of developed countries provide for the creation of fully autonomous robotic units. First of all, it will allow reducing losses among personnel significantly. Robots do not just replace soldiers on the battlefield – their use allows the command to take risks where otherwise such an approach would be inappropriate – in case of failure equipment will be lost, but not people. In the nearest future, the command of the US ground forces expects to get into service robots that can independently bypass stationary and moving obstacles and detect the enemy at a considerable distance. The Pentagon is on the path of creating new generations of “highly intelligent” robots capable of forming full-fledged combat groups and performing the tasks assigned to them with minimal human participation. In particular, the process of introducing advanced information technologies, including the development of new network layer protocols responsible for the transmission and routing of messages, is ongoing.  According to military experts, this will create advanced modular mobile RoboPlatforms, anthropomorphic robots and unmanned aerial vehicles, combined into specialized mobile networks, which are also called self-organizing and self-configuring. The review discusses various ground-based military robots, aircraft and android robots developed in Japan, China, America, Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and other countries. In conclusion, a futuristic vision of the US Army in the future is considered. Figs.: 45. Refs.: 56 titles.

UDC 528.06

Alpert S.I. New approaches to the application of various methods of finding the base masses under the classification of hyperspectral space images. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 30 – 42.

This paper provides a description of a certain computer equipment components which allow remotely gain unauthorized access to computers. These components are Intel Management Engine (Intel ME) and Intel AMT. Intel ME is an independent subsystem which is included in almost all Intel processor chips since 2008. The chip is always connected to a power source, so the subsystem continues to work even when the computer is turned off. Vulnerabilities were discovered in Intel AMT, thereafter many computers using Intel processors became available for remote and local intruders. The paper also describes Chinese microchips that have been implemented into Supermicro equipment. This equipment was supplied not only to US commercial organizations but to governmental as well. Supermicro Chinese microchips have the ability to edit the code stream that heads to the processor by inserting their own code, or else it can change the instructions order for the processor. The microchip can intercept communication security coding, as well as prevent the restoration of the security system as a whole. The paper also provides an overview for recent sensational vulnerabilities of Meltdown, Spectre and ZombieLoad in Intel and ARM processors that allows manipulating a computer in a varying degree. These vulnerabilities are similar to each other, they allow a malicious application to read any type of computer memory, including kernel. It became feasible thanks to a speculative code execution system. Both personal user data can be stolen, such as browser history, website content, passwords, or system data, and disk encryption keys. Security experts should take into account the points above, as in certain cases all these things could possibly turn into national scale problems, both financial and political. Fig.: 1. Refs.: 7 titles.

UDC 519.6:004.021

Vakal L.P., Vakal Ye.S. The solution of boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations using the differential evolution algorithm. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 43 – 52.

In the paper considers a boundary value problem for an ordinary differential equation of the nth order. As an approximate solution to the problem, it is selected a function which for arbitrary values of parameters included in it exactly satisfies the boundary conditions, and when the function is substituted into the equation, a differential residual is formed. To search optimal values of the parameters at which the minimum of a deviation function of the differential residual from zero is achieved, it is proposed an approach using the differential evolution algorithm. The approach can also be extended to a case when the approximate solution does not satisfy exactly the boundary conditions for arbitrary values of its parameters and, in addition to the differential residual, there are also residuals of the boundary conditions. Differential evolution algorithm is used to solve multidimensional optimization problems. It simulates basic evolutionary processes in nature: crossover, mutation, selection. It is one of the best evolutionary algorithms stably finding function global minimum (maximum) in minimum time. Unlike the standard scheme of differential evolution, in the proposed algorithm the evolution occurs only due to mutation and selection operations, crossover doesn’t use. This allows us to simplify the algorithm without compromising the results accuracy. The algorithm allows to solve both linear and nonlinear boundary value problems without making changes and not applying numerical methods, and it also allows to use different norms for the deviation function (quadratic, Chebyshev, etc.). The proposed algorithm is implemented in Matlab. Results of computational experiments to solve test boundary value problems for differential equations of the second and fourth orders are presented. They show that approximate solutions of these problems obtained by the differential evolution algorithm are in good agreement with their exact solutions. Таbl.: 3. Figs.: 1. Refs.: 20 titles.


UDC 004.02

Nikitenko Ye.V., Ryndych Ye.V. The mobile Android app of the travel tracking system. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 53 – 60.

The conceptual model of the subject area and the architecture of the travel support system have been developed, namely the planning of the travel itinerary regarding the interaction with the user of the system. It is proposed architecture of the mobile Android application that was designed by reference to specific features of the client-server architecture and is flexible because it is not limited to use the specific software solutions: frameworks or libraries. The proposed system belongs to the class of travel support systems and enables the user to create, edit, and delete elements of the travel itinerary. The system also targets multiple users with one itinerary at a time. Each user has the ability to create multiple itineraries at one time. You can add multiple users to one itinerary at a time, thus creating many-to-many relationships. The architecture of the mobile Android application is the implementation of client-server architecture with an approach to REST network protocol architecture that provides access to information resources on a local or global network. The information is sent to the server part of the clients, where it is processed and stored in a PostgreSQL relational database. For practical implementation, Java programming language, ORM technology, JSON data format, and Android platform were used. One of the main functions of the developed system is the construction of the itinerary taking into account the factors of the interaction of many users and the factors that they have chosen as the most important. The proposed results are of practical importance and can be used in other areas related to logistics. Figs.: 7. Refs.: 5 titles.

UDC 528.9

Kovalets I.V., Khalchenkov O.V., Nochvai V.I. Pilot study with complex simulation of atmospheric pollution in Kyiv. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 61 – 72.

For the first time, a pilot simulation of atmospheric pollution in Kyiv from all known sources of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia was carried out. For simulation, we used both the reports of on annual emissions of stationary sources in Kyiv from the State Statistics Service of Ukraine (SSSE) and the data of the international geo-distributed EMEP emission database, which is compiled on the basis of reports of separate countries. An assessment was also made of the volume and spatial distribution of SO2 and NO2 emissions from vehicles. EMEP estimates for emissions from stationary sources for all substances considered are always greater than the corresponding data from the SSSE reports. According to estimates, road transport is responsible for less than 50% of SO2 and NO2 emissions in Kiev. Despite the unrealistic spatial distribution of emissions in the EMEP data, modeling based on these data allows us to obtain a better match of the calculation results with the measurement data than modeling based on the emission data from the SSSE reports. Even in the EMEP emission scenario, the calculated SO2 and NO2 concentrations are underestimated by about 2 times compared with the measurement data, which indicates a corresponding underestimation of the emission volumes in the EMEP data, and a much greater underestimation of emissions in the SSSE reports. For ammonia, even in the EMEP scenario, in which the volumes of NH3 emissions are several times higher than the corresponding emissions from the SSSE reports, the calculated concentrations are underestimated by 7-25 times in comparison with the data of NH3 measurements. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that at the SSSE reports contain information about only a few percent of the total ammonia emissions in Kyiv. The results of the work indicate the need for urgent implementation of the recommendations of EMEP experts contained in the published review of the National Report of Ukraine on this protocol and, first of all, the compilation and verification of geo-distributed emission inventory according to EMEP methods. Таbl.: 4. Figs.: 6. Refs.: 22 titles. 

UDC 004.02

Grybkov S.V., Lytvynov V.A., Oliinyk G.V. The instrumental model of the WEB-oriented software implementation of the decision support subsystem as part of the software package of the situational center. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 73 – 81.

One of the most important tasks in solving the problem of creating a network of situational center (SC) of public authorities in Ukraine is to develop standard solutions in various areas of the problems of design, implementation and functioning of the SC. The purpose of the article is an attempt to partially fill some of the gaps in terms of methodological and instrumental support for the implementation of the SC software. It is undoubtedly expedient to apply an iterative (evolutionary) approach to the process of designing a SC taking into account real domestic conditions and risks. As a possible basis for prototyping the SC are considered modern ECM-systems, which are defined as software complexes of corporate content management. These approaches propose an instrumental model of the prototype of a decision support subsystem as part of the SC complex, in particular during the preparatory and meeting stages. The instrumental model is understood as a set of software components of the subsystem and decisions on their joint application. The web-based software implementation model of the subsystem includes: Spring Framework software platform, which in general provides the construction of software infrastructure of the subsystem; means of Junit library and Mockito software platform for modular and integration testing of the code of the developed system; Hibernate object-relational mapping tools for working with data; HTTP Request-Response protocol as the basis for interaction between the server and the client side; standard / Open API specifications describing the interfaces between the server and client parts; means of forming web-pages for displaying them in the user's browser. The set of software and hardware solutions presented in the model has been successfully tested in the decision support system for the formation and operational reconfiguration of production plans for the implementation of contracts of the enterprise. Figs.: 4. Refs.: 19 titles.

UDC 519.769

Mehtiev T.Z. About one approach to a volatile time series predicting. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 82 – 93.

This article proposes an algorithm of a universe constructing that encompasses historical data of еру time series, a fuzzification method of these data using trapezoidal membership functions, and based on them a fuzzy 1st-order model for volatile time series predicting. According to the obtained results, the proposed algorithm for constructing the fuzzy model of the 1st-order provides more accurate value of approximation of the initial time series. Fuzzy sets, as criteria for evaluating historical data values, and fuzzy internal relationships as well (in the form of implicative rules) are divided into groups that reflect cause-effect relationships within the time series and were used to predict it. Based on the application of statistical evaluation criteria MAPE and MSE, it was found that the accuracy of the proposed fuzzy model, taking into account 1st-order internal relationships, is significantly improved using the proposed algorithm of historical data fuzzification. Nevertheless, the model presented in the paper does not pretend to have absolute predicting accuracy, which can be achieved and/or achieved by other more complex higher-order models. The purpose of the article is to show that the use of simple fuzzy prediction models of the 1st-order the opportunity for further improvement of the predicting technology of weakly structured time series. Prediction results of the arbitrary volatile time series demonstrate that the combination of universe establishment algorithms and historical data fuzzification using trapezoidal membership functions, the construction of 1st-order internal cause-effect relationships and the method of defuzzification of outputs of the used fuzzy model can still be superior in quality predicting and prediction reliability not only similar 1st-order models that are presented in the paper, but other models of higher order as well. Таbl.: 8. Figs.: 6. Refs.: 9 titles.

                                   SIMULATION AND MANAGEMENT

UDC 004.9

Holub S.V., Mykhailyk O.M. Model synthesizer for cyberattack monitoring systems. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 94 – 98.

The paper describes a method of monitoring the security status of local corporate networks, which combines the processes of synthesis and analysis of input behavior patterns, prediction of their values and modeling of cyberattacks. Model-classifiers of cyber threats have been created. Characteristics of data flows come into the network with the help of sensors installed in advance scheduled trace points of the computer network. There is a classification of vectors from the indicators that characterize these cyber attacks. The obtained results are presented both quantitatively and qualitatively, in accordance with the basic provisions of the theory of complex systems. In order to increase the efficiency of network protection, it was proposed to centralize computational process using grid infrastructure and cloud platform. A preliminary comparison of grid and cloud technologies has been carried out. The workload and computationally complicated procedure is transferred from local computer networks to high-performance environments. Using simulation models, it was investigated changes in the state of the query processing scheme, based on a sample of attacks that came to computer systems. The model takes into account heterogeneous input data flows and the possibility of changing the intensity of requests in information systems by attackers, which allows choosing ways to counteract and neutralize the effects of their impact, and analyze more complex cyberattacks. With the help of simulation models, the dynamics of changes in the conditions of the subsystem blocking queries in the process of recognition of cyber attacks in critical computer systems is researched. In addition to cybersecurity, accelerating the task of multiple recognition is relevant to many other important applications, such as intelligent data analysis, accelerated processing of XML queries, QoS technology management, IP-telephony filtering, caching optimization, etc. Refs.: 13 titles.

UDC 004.75

Burmaka I.A., Lytvynov V.V., Skiter I.S., Lytvyn S.V. Evaluating a blockchain-based network performance for the intrusion detection system. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 99 – 109.

Intrusion detection systems are the important part of every corporate network. But current amount of network traffic in corporate network is so big that centralized intrusion detection systems can not process such amounts of traffic. So modern corporate networks need distributed intrusion detection system. But big distributed systems need a mechanism of setting trust between the nodes. A blockchain can be used as such kind of mechanism, but most of working blockchains use cases are related to cryptocurrencies, where blockchain is successfully used as a decentralized database which saves all history of transactions and has a mechanism for checking data integrity. So the blockchain protocols which were initially designed for cryptocurrencies can have a performance issues when they will be used for the intrusion detection system information exchange. Mostly because the amounts of data in intrusion detection systems for recording are much bigger then in cryptocurrency network. Also the main difference between blockchain usage for intrusion detection system and cryptocurrency is that cryptocurrency has in average stable amounts of data for recording when intrusion detection system has variable amount of data which is increasing in case of abnormal situations in network. In this paper, the results of the modeling of blockchain-based network to evaluate performance for a collaborative intrusion detection system are presented. The experiment includes the agent-based modeling of the dynamics of parameters which have the biggest impact on the network performance. Modeling results will help us to find optimal use cases for the blockchain-based intrusion detection systems. Also it will show us weak points of blockchain protocols and ways to improve blockchain performance for this use case. Figs.: 4. Refs.: 29 titles.

UDC 621.771.23.024.2

Grabovsky G.G., Ievlev M.G. Automated energy and resource saving scale descaling system for hot rolling mill. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 110 – 127.

One of the most important indicators of the rolling quality is the cleanliness of its surface, which in turn is determined by the presence or absence of surface defects. Studies conducted on a number of rolling mills have shown that only a small part of the rolled products (about 10%) do not require stripping using abrasive tools. Currently, the most effective and economical way to remove primary scale is hydraulic, realized by a jet of water, beating from a nozzle under high pressure. The paper discusses the principles of calculating the parameters of the descaling device with rotor heads. The experimental data are used for an approximate choice of the hydroblow jet parameters. It is shown that the efficiency of descaling is significantly related to the grade of steel, which is illustrated by the corresponding graphs, as well as with the fluid velocity at the outlet of the rolling rotor heads. The functions of an automated descaling system for a hot rolling mill are considered, a block diagram of a set of technical equipment is given, and the basic principles of building a system are analyzed. The technical solutions described above, including a new highly efficient energy and resource-saving technology for hydrotreating a metal surface, high-pressure water technology and an automated control system for high-pressure equipment that implements the developed technology, were used in an automated hydrodescaling system (AHDS), which was put into commercial operation on a rolling mill 2800. This development can be implemented in almost all metallurgical plants in Ukraine and neighboring countries. Таbl.: 1. Figs.: 9. Refs.: 15 titles.

UDC 519.21

Kruglova N.V., Dykhovychny O.O., Alekseeva I.V., Bogdanova N.V. On the distribution of the maximum of the Chentsov field on the “steps”. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 128 – 139.

The paper
generalized results that presented in the works of following authors: Paranjape, Park, Klesov, Kruglova. Presise maximum distribution educted in particular of Browian sheet on unit square that straiten on certain polygones. Trial nesessity of certain tasks regarding to percolation and filtration tasks. Supremum distributions researched on square border as well as on stepped line. The distributions found coincide with the distributions obtained in the works of Park and Paranjape. The peculiarity of the polygons on which the distribution of the Chentsov field is studied is the special alternation of horizontal and vertical links. The exact distribution for the narrowing of the Chentsov field to such polynomials in previous works was attempted by obtaining the boundary transition in multiple integrals. Such a boundary transition requires additional justification. The suggested method of polygons parameterization solves the problem of boundary transition, but the exact distributions are determined by rather complicated integrals, even approximate estimates of which are problematic. Computer simulation of a random process trajectory is proposed as a means of solving this problem, which is a corresponding narrowing of the field on the line. The algorithm proposed by Kruglova and Dykhovichny was used for modeling. This algorithm has a high speed, the need for which is caused by a large number of breakpoints of the process trajectory. Selection of the maximum distribution is made using the statistical programming language R. The most acceptable distribution is the Weibull distribution, which is confirmed by the Kolmogorov criterion, as well as Q-Q and P-P diagrams. Figs.: 7. Refs.: 12 titles. 


UDC 621.3.019.3

Butsenko Yu.P., Savchenko Yu.G. Self-monitoring of technical condition in electronic devices with structural redundancy. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 140 – 148.

The introduction of hardware redundancy in most cases is used as a method of increasing a reliability of non-repairable (non-recoverable) equipment. In this case, not only the improvement of such an indicator as the probability of failure-free operation can be achieved, but an increase in MTBF as well. The article shows that in the case of introducing redundancy for the restored equipment, additional opportunities arise for organizing self-diagnosis (self-monitoring) of the technical condition of the equipment. On the example of the structure of the popular NonStop solution derived by the Tandem company, specific proposals for the development of real-time signals for indicating the current technical state of the structure in the event of pre-emergency or emergency situations are considered. It is shown, that aforementioned possibilities are practically absent in the majority structures in the case of triple redundancy and significantly improve upon the transition to structures of higher redundancy. Another important and useful feature of such structures is the ability to adapt the signal generation algorithm when a part of the equipment fails in the structure. In the case of “Tandem”-type structure after the failure of one of the elements, the implementation of the adaptation algorithm leads to a structure with triple redundancy of the majority type, which has significant advantages over double-redundant. The analysis of “Tandem”-type structures for various starting positions was carried out. Analytical expressions are obtained for the average transition times from the “Tandem” scheme to the triple redundancy scheme (hereinafter, to the double redundancy scheme with subsequent absence of redundancy), the average reverse transition times in the presence of recovery possibilities,
and, based on them, coefficients of readiness are calculated. Таbl.: 1. Figs.: 2. Refs.: 3 titles.

UDC 519.718

Fedukhin О.V. On the issue of forecasting the residual life of electronic products. Mathematical machines and systems. 2020. N 1. P. 149 – 156.

The work is devoted to solving the important problem of extending the period of operation of obsolete equipment for critical systems, planned measures to replace which are not economically feasible at this time. At the same time, a necessary condition for extending the period of operation is to maintain the established risks of critical situations that could cause accidents. For non-renewable products, a residual life is predicted, and for renewable products, a residual life is predicted. If many issues have been resolved in questions of forecasting the state of mechanical products, today, in the direction of electronic and electrical products, solving this problem requires further researches. Insurmountable difficulties are connected with using, as a theoretical model, the reliability of the exponential distribution, which does not imply the occurrence of degradation and aging processes in products, depending on the service life. As an alternative to forecasting the residual life of electronic products, a probabilistic-physical reliability model is proposed – a DN-distribution obtained specifically for solving reliability problems for a given class of products. The DN-distribution is a flexible two-parameter function that most accurately describes any statistics of failures with different coefficients of variation of the mean time between failures. In addition, this distribution has a function of failure rate, which varies over time that corresponds to most real objects sensitive to degradation of parameters and aging. Drawing on the example of semiconductor transistors, methods of forecasting the residual life of products after long-term storage without electrical load and according to the results of forced tests with increased load are proposed. Таbl.: 2. Fig.: 1. Refs.: 7 titles.






       Last modified: Mar 27, 2020